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In early May 2012, the resident Maloyaroslavets Roman N. Rubtsov a few kilometers from the city found a strange burnt stones and pieces of black glass. By selecting several samples, Rubtsov came to the Committee on Meteorites Vernadsky Institute, where his findings have not shown interest. Then he tried to determine the nature of their own discoveries and continued to collect samples. Altogether, they had chosen a few thousand pieces of glass with a total weight of 270 kg and 350 kg of iron debris. The weight of the individual glass reached 3 kg, maximum weight of the iron fragment was 50 kg. He soon came to the conclusion that the pieces of glass may be in the treatment of tektites EV Dmitrieva. We contacted the Eugene V. and asked to comment on the findings of our author.
After receiving samples from Rubtsov findings, I do not believe my eyes: some fragments of black glass on the morphology indistinguishable from Nizhny Novgorod tektites, space (comet), the origin of which can be considered a proven fact. Given that some meteorites represent a conglomerate that includes all types of findings, it can be assumed that the other objects are also dropped out cometary meteorites.
Rubtsov was examined by a wooded section 3h8 km far from the bed Protva. According to tradition, the findings collectively known – protvanity. Samples generally are three types of cometary material: tektites-protvanitami (composition – calcium silicate), silica-alumina and iron protvanitami. Judging by the bedding in the soil samples, we can assume their relationship with Borowski fireballs.
Roman finds from Rubtsov cometary meteorites – tektites-protvanitami.
There are other cases of drop swarms of cometary fragments.
1. The dense swarm of Nizhny Novgorod tektites winter 1996/1997 fell on an area of 600 m2, near the village Berseniha. The author finds AJ Levin managed to collect around 200 kg of tektites, weight of the individual specimens reach 3 kg. The composition of tektites sharply differed from known samples, high-sodium, barium and manganese. This is the first in the history of science has proved the fall of tektites.
2. A resident of Kostroma VV Filippov in September 1994 saw the fall of the luminous body, 5 km from the town of Inta, accompanied by a strong explosion. On the site of the crash was formed flattened forest the size of a football field. The trunks of birch trees around the inrush acquired a strange yellow color. In the middle of the fall indentations, but not a typical shock or blast crater, as it were, heave, followed by partial subsidence back. In and around the recess in the set pieces were scoriaceous substance. Some looked like a black glass drops. Samples were eventually acquired a slight tinge of rust, calcium silicate appeared.
3. The strange part of the forest while collecting mushrooms discovered in the autumn of 1996, a few kilometers from the city of Snezhinsk fellow All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics, VF Raspopin. He gave the impression that the forest has experienced some kind of accident. Everywhere we observed crippled trees, some pines and birches up to 30 cm thick tops and shot down large branches. On trunks were observed multiple wounds stiff resin. On the ground, bumps into the crust infiltrated particles scoriaceous substance. Area wounded forests is estimated at 10 square meters. km. Famous Ural geologist VI Grochowski finds Raspopina meteorites are not admitted. Several samples of fallen ash Raspopin sent to the Committee on Meteorites, where it finds no meteorites found and sent samples Dmitriev. On the composition of aluminosilicate and they were well fit into the classification of comet meteorites.
These examples show that the Earth sporadically fall dense swarm of cometary debris. At the time, the astronomer VA Bronshten, analyzed data on numerous observations of exploding fireballs fly, I came to the conclusion that the car bodies are generated by low strength, probably cometary debris. This conclusion, he extended to the Tunguska meteorite.
On the comet meteorites
Conducted by the author for 30 years of the study dropped to Earth and tektites psevdometeoritov1 with the facts fall (16 falls and finds 5) have shown that they are chemical and mineral composition of the mechanism of destruction in the atmosphere of meteoroids and debris falling out, too sharply differs from the well-known meteorites. As a result, it was concluded that the investigated objects come from comets, and comets themselves, contrary to the established opinion, are not remnants of the protoplanetary cloud and do not contain the oldest material of the solar system, and are the products of eruptions (emissions) of celestial bodies located in systems of giant planets. In other words – the nature of comets have eruptive origin. The author believes that the future results of studies of the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko space umbrella “Rosetta” fully confirmed this conclusion.
According to the chemical composition of the investigated objects are classified into main elements: Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, S and C. This is mainly glass, slag, pumice, continental and marine sedimentary rocks, iron and igneous rocks. The crushing of meteorites with a high content of alkali metals can be found streamerglasses representing the skeletal remains of extraterrestrial primitive marine animals, similar in morphology with corals, sponge spicules and radiolarians. The appearance of a comet can be represented as a conglomerate of rocks of frozen gases and water ice. Volume strength of the comet is small, so that its large fragments destroyed at altitudes of about 20 km. The resulting destruction of swarms of debris rapidly decelerated in the atmosphere and fall to the ground, forming a leakage field. In the same way, we formed the stray field of tektites. The measured density of comet meteorites varies widely from 7.8 g / cm3 (iron) to 0.6 g / cm3 (pumice).
There is one unpleasant feature of comet meteorites due to the nature of comets. After 19 years after the fall of the Tunguska comet LA Kulik, who arrived at the crash site, I was most struck by the absence of any life in the epicenter of the explosion – “land of the dead wood gave the impression of lifelessness. There were no people, no animals, no birds … But the surrounding area is literally swarming with life. ”
This fact can not be explained only by the influence of the countryside strong shock waves and the light pulse. It would be natural to expect that the past 19 years – a period quite sufficient to restore the fauna. Likely played a major role here poisonous substances inherent in cometary nuclei, the soil has retained the smell of a comet that frightened animals. According to the spectral analysis of comets than water in their nuclei detected poisonous nitrogen and carbon, such as carbon dioxide, cyanogen, ammonia, etc.
Cometary, meteoritic version
Returning to Borovsky car. Flying over the area of the Moscow May 14, 1934 at 9-10 am. Evening he finished his flight over the city of Borovsk. Researchers exasperated question: what would happen if the comet fragments fell hail not late at night, and in the middle of the day? It is possible there would be casualties among people and pets, because some samples protvanitov quite large, are able to kill an elephant.
In the “Komsomolskaya Pravda” on March 29, 2014 it published an article “This is” The Storm “flew, and aha?”, Which is considered one of the many options proposed Dyatlov Pass Incident – one of the most mysterious and horrible incidents of the 20th century. Here at once there is an analogy with the Bohr swarm of meteorites fall. Of course, it is almost impossible to imagine that the nine tourists, lost in distant taiga wilderness only to get hit by a deadly meteorite hail. The probability of such a situation is negligible, but as shown in the above examples, it is not equal to zero. Nevertheless, the meteorite version compares favorably with many other versions of Dyatlov Pass Incident, it explains a lot, and most importantly – verifiable!
It is known that a group of Dyatlov February 1 1959 stopped for the night on the exposed mountainside Holat-stunted, which in – Mountain of the Dead – and got ready for bed. And then, suddenly, cutting the tent, all nine of ran half-naked in the cold and began to descend the hill into the woods. It is clear that their actions were provoked by rapidly spreading deadly. From the position of the meteorite version of this act can give the following explanation. In the sky appeared the car, the trajectory of which ended with an explosion over the area overnight stay at an altitude of about 20 km (the most common height of the explosion of cars). Ballistic and blast shock waves reaching the surface, caused by clumps of snow rolling down the slope. By the way, there is evidence that at this time there was indeed a glowing ball. It is not known if the tourists have seen the light pulse through the fabric of the tent, but the roar of the shock waves and started immediately roll forming of snow on the tent they clearly felt; These phenomena are taken for the impending avalanche.
Then arises the question of what caused the scantily clad tourists walk 1.5 km along the slope, because no avalanche rolls down the mountain except lumps of snow, they were not observed, and most of all, looking back at the beginning, they had to see the outline of the tent, did not fall asleep snow. The reason for that could be a meteor and comet degrees under which they fell. The fact that formed after the explosion of the meteoroid swarm of cometary meteorites fall to the ground within a few minutes. First fall of large meteorites, with a large proportion at the end of small and light. The duration of the process may be about 30 minutes. In short, virtually all the 1.5 km tourists meteorite showered hail, sought to large cedar under which hoped to escape from falling objects. They watched as around them something fell, and when they hit the ground there are pictures, similar to a small, almost silent explosions. Meteorites falls and tourists, this says a lot of impact origin wounds on their bodies.
Almost everyone on the hands were abrasions – hands they tried to protect his head from the blows of meteorites. For reference: a deadly danger to humans may be even a small stony meteorite weighing 100 g, as the speed of its free fall to the earth’s surface up to 60 m / c.
Cometary poisonous gases and vapors from fallen meteorites could have a toxic and stupefying effect on tourists, they cause inappropriate behavior and discoloration of the skin. The only way to protect against gas attack in such a situation – a fall in the snow and try to breathe air through the filter of snow cover than tourists, most likely benefited. But in the supine position likelihood of getting hit by a meteorite is several times higher than that of the person in an upright position. Detection of multiple rib fractures: at Zolotarev – 5 ribs with the right hand, Dubinin – 4 from the right and 6 left – indirectly indicates that the fatal injuries they received while in a horizontal position.
Injuries of this type can be caused by the impact of large low-strength meteorites fall from low speeds, such as lung and pumice or slag lumps of sediment smёrzshihsya gases and liquids. For example, the following case, quoted in the book GG Vorobiev, “What do you know about tektites?”: March 21, 1950 in the morning about the Mongolian border guards have been falling slab of slag, the split in the fall of 355 pieces with a total weight of 28 kg. a fallen slab known as “Kerulen psevdometeorit.” A similar decline was observed in Poland.
In the dead of tourists was recorded strange skin color, according to various estimates: yellow-orange, brown-brown, brownish-purple, with dark brown shade. This fact can be explained by the influence of tourist cometary gases, vapors and (or) an aerosol formed by meteorite impacts on the ground. It is not entirely clear how the groups that were so unusual physical and psychological effects, able to reach the forest, and how transported wounded comrades.
Apparently Zolotarev, Dubinin and Thibault-Brignoles, suffered serious injuries of the skull, died in the woods? Survivors desperately fought for life, but to win the difficulties and frost, and they could not have died, three of them while trying to get back into the tent.
There is another observation that may be indirectly related to the fall of meteorites – the big cedar found broken branches at a height of 4-5 m, some of them lying on the ground, others hung on the lower branches. Here we have a typical meteorite damage to the tree. Weakened by the tourists could not break the branches because of the high altitude, and why they were necessary to them, when all around was a lot of young shoots.
Check the version
To check the version proposed is necessary, first of all, to seek the fallen meteorites or material traces in the form of crushed or pulverized material. The experience of the author’s research has fallen comet material provides an opportunity to identify future discoveries. If there was loss of traditional meteorites (chondrites achondrites), they would have been found long ago.
Difficulty identifying cometary meteorites is that they are by their appearance, and composition differ little from terrestrial rocks, so you need to pay attention to any findings alien geological environment.
Option loss pure ice meteorite is not excluded, but the search for traces of their prospects. Today, on the substance of comets are judged by their spectral analysis, so in this case nothing to do but focus on finding has studied and is not recognized cometary meteorites, which are known to the external signs, and even the structure of the classification of. All the information on them can be found in the works of Dmitriev. You should also pay attention to the portions of the surface of the soil, characterized by unusual color, as well as clay, cement or alabaster plaque, which may be followed by meteorites, which are fragments of sedimentary rocks, such as siltstone that had fallen as part Krasnoturansk and Altai cometary meteorites. Interestingly, siltstone slices, remaining at the site of a meteorite Krasnoturansk, one year turned into lumps of clay. Fall slag, pumice and glass meteorites impact on the frozen ground lead to their fragmentation, and the larger fragment, the smaller its pieces. Searching work should be carried out along the route of the group from the tent to the cedar.
How to identify suspicious findings? It is necessary to make them a silicate analysis. If you find that the composition of discovery fits into the proposed classification, the more you can start looking at a sample of pure cosmic particles inherent in meteorites, including the comet, such as native metals, olivine, diamond, moissanite, Schreibersite and others.
In samples with a high content of alkali metal may streamerglasses findings that suggested as cometary markers.
When there will be evidence of the cosmic nature of the finds, it is necessary to create an initiative group of researchers of various specialties, doctors and psychologists to study and detail meteorite version. If the official science does not show interest in the meteorite version, you can create a group of type Complex amateur expedition (CSE), which has extensive experience in the study of the problems of the Tunguska meteorite. Searching work should be based on a specially designed program to complete the demarcation of the field scattering of cometary material and identify the entire range of dropped objects.
About the Author: Eugene V. Dmitriev, a veteran of the State Research and Production Space Center Khrunichev. Currently engaged in the problems of cosmogony, planetary, comets and cometary meteorites, extraterrestrial life and protect the Earth from cosmogenic accidents, the author of over 80 publications.
1. Psevdometeoritami called objects, the fact that the fall is undeniable, but the nature of meteorite science has not recognized. This is mainly glass, slag and pumice. Dmitriev.E. Borovsky unravel whether the meteorite Devil’s Pass? //
Technique-youth, 2014, № 14. C. 12-15. In an http://www.ufo-com.net/publications/art-7607-borovskii-meteorit-i-pereval-diatlova.html