Borovsky cometary meteorite

Borovsky cometary meteorite

Eugene V. Dmitriev

In the evening, May 14, 1934 on the Moscow region appeared bright fireball was seen in Ryazan, Moscow, Tula, Kashin, Torzhok and other cities. The flight ended with an atmospheric explosion in Borovsky District, Kaluga region. In Moscow were heard thundering blows, and the city was illuminated like a searchlight, I witnessed the flight of the car became an artist NI Fedorov. Probably so impressed the artist, he painted a picture of the phenomenon (Figure 1) and then began to take active part in the meteorite expeditions, including the fall of the Tunguska. Currently, his picture is in the meteorite exposure Mineralogical Museum. Fersman.

meteorite
Fig. 1. Borovsky car in 1934. Picture Honored Artist of Russia Nikolai Fedorov.

But the greatest contribution to the popularization of the car Borowski made our great scientist, the founder of astronautics of KE Tsiolkovsky. The flight itself, he did not watch, but his grandson — witness the flight — apparently they vividly described the event. «The area around the brightly lit up. From earthly things crept black shadows. Bowl half the size of moon moved in a westerly direction inclined to the horizon. Its core is bluish-green throbbing, then expanding, then contracting again. For ball stretched yellowish-red intermittent trail and sparks. A few minutes later, the body of fire if crumbled, and again everything was plunged into darkness. »

Story grandson extremely interested Tsiolkovsky, and he decided to turn to the witnesses of the car flying through the newspaper «Izvestia», where the June 21, 1934 published his article entitled «Who saw the car?».

Soon he began to receive letters, the number of which exceeded 500, with sketches, descriptions and updates. To date, some of the letters are scanned and posted on the Internet. Unfortunately, research message processing were subjected.

Borowski car attracted the attention of LA Kulik, a famous scientist who discovered the planetary world event called the Tunguska meteorite. He believed that meteorites have fallen in Naro-Fominsk district [1], and organized a search for them at about 30 km from Borovsk, but even small fragments were found.

Thus, it appears that it is not interested in Borovsk Tsiolkovsky car, its history is gradually forgotten, moreover facilitated by the fact that the «cosmic body, apparently, fallen in the remote forests of Bohr, found so far. Will he ever find it? «- So ends one article about Bohr car.

It took 78 years. At the beginning of May 2012 a resident of Maloyaroslavets Roman N. Rubtsov, located a few kilometers from the city, I noticed a strange brownish-red burned stone lying in the clearing, it does not blend into the surroundings dense forests. Then he immediately thought of a meteorite, then it swept some inner obsession search. I went further and further into the forest, until he found the first piece of black fused glass, or rather stepped on it. Then he found a piece of iron, and so on. Total research he managed to collect 120 kg of pieces of glass and 140 kg of iron. By taking multiple images, he came to the Committee on Meteorites Vernadsky Institute, where his findings have not shown interest. Despite this, it will attempt to identify the nature of their findings. Soon came to the conclusion that the pieces of glass may be in the treatment of tektites EV Dmitriev, and then got in touch with him via the Internet.

Visit sent glass samples showed their striking similarity of their appearance with the Nizhny Novgorod tektites (Fig. 2), the fact that the fall is firmly established [2], and VA research Tsel’movich confirmed their extraterrestrial nature. [3] This circumstance gives reason to believe that the formation of glass flowed on a single scenario and, therefore, Rubtsovsk glass can also be regarded as tektites.

borovsk10Borovsky_cometary_meteorite
Fig. 2. The samples of tektites, protvanitov (a) and Nizhny Novgorod tektites (b).

Since traditional Meteoritika unable to give an explanation of findings, a further presentation of the material in the article will be carried out in the framework of alternative science — comet Meteoritics [4]. According to her the nature of comets have eruptive origin, tektites are cometary meteorites that fell to Earth after atmospheric explosions of cometary debris, like the Tunguska meteorite. [5] At the same time it turned out that tektites are cometary fulgurites formed when powerful lightning strike on cometary nuclei at the time of the eruption of large celestial bodies [6].

borovsk11Borovsky_cometary_meteorite
Fig. 3 Field scattering fallen meteorites located in Borovsky District, Kaluga region

Golf scattering fallen meteorites located in Borovsky District, Kaluga region (Fig. 3). The size of the surveyed area 3h8 km, bandwidth intensive finding substances 700m. Location finds patchy. Dimensions group finds from 0.5 to 7 m., The depth of meteorites from 0 to 60 cm. It is possible that only part of the Rubtsov investigated stray field protvanitov. Similar group burial tektites-indoshinitov the field of scattering discovered EP Izokh in Vietnam. [7]

The comet meteoritics accepted to give all fallen objects found on the scattering of a single name. According to tradition, the name of the standard geologic given on the location, in this case the most suitable word protvanit (protvanit), selected by name Protva nearby river. You can compare — the island of Java called tektites yavanitami. Tektites found more than 1000 pcs., From very small fragments up to 3 kg. Metal fragments reach 80 kg. The average density of tektites 3.3 g / cm 2, hardness ~ 7 color in thin slices olive-green. Several small samples are fully transparent. Compared with the Nizhny Novgorod tektites protvanity less proplavleny contain various inclusions, which makes them more interesting research objects. The skeletal remains of extraterrestrial primitive marine animals — streamerglasses found in some meteorites, comets, and in the finds, rinse them with dust, was not found, but it does not mean that they are not there — we need a more painstaking search. Some samples of tektites, protvanitov shows amazing figures, so that the avant-garde of their imagination, «sculptor» could be the envy of even Picasso. Slag has a gray color and a finely porous structure. Iron meteorites tend to represent a conglomerate of metal and various breeds.

Chemical analysis was done for the samples of glass, slag and iron (see. Table) — the three main types of the separated objects. The glasses are also tektites, composition well fit into the classification of comet meteorites [4], have a high content of Ca, and will therefore be referred to as protvanity (H) Ca or tektites-protvanity. Slags have a high content of Al, as well fit into the classification and will be referred to as protvanity H (Al). The classification analogues iron meteorites there, and will be referred to as the protvanity H (Fe). Some meteorites are observed various inclusions of other minerals. Also found were a few samples of unknown nature.

The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis wt%, shares

name samplesNSiO2TiO2Al2O3FeOобщ.MnOMgOCaONa2OK2O
Protvanit H (Ca) glass350,740,8615,666,701,300,9021,320,500,48
Protvanit H (Al) pumice145,632,1618,2413,060,0871,165,200,911,55
Protvanit H (Fe) Iron15,780,090,6980,620,53-0,280,230,04
+ Ni = 0,009, Cr203 = 0,177

N — number of samples studied.

The question immediately arises, why slag and iron meteorites ranked as the comet? The answer is simple, in some samples, representing a conglomerate, along with tektitic glass having, undoubtedly, the cometary origin, slag and iron are observed (Fig. 4). By the way, when the fall of the iron meteorite Sterlitamakskiy simultaneously with high-K comet fell pumice, which resulted in the conclusion that iron meteorites and comets may come from [8].

borovsk12Borovsky_cometary_meteorite
Fig. 4. Photo protvanitov individual samples: a — an alloy of iron and glass, b — an alloy of iron, slag and glass, — slag g — an alloy of iron and glass, etc. — an alloy of iron with the breed unclear genesis, e — an alloy of iron and slag. Designations in the images: 1 iron H (Fe), 2 — slag H (Al), 3steklo — H (Ca).

There is another question why the iron was not enough nickel? There are two possibilities of explanation. The first iron was initially a part of the second — iron nickel lost as a result of being heated to high temperatures. Since the parent material of tektites, slag and iron simultaneously subjected to a pulsed high-energy influence (lightning) that caused it to melt and even boiling, and this could lead to a change in the original composition.

The spread over a large area of ​​finds, their group burial, the presence of tektites and conglomerates with inclusions of tektites, allow to exclude man-made nature of their origin. Slight depth of meteorites indicates a small amount of time that has passed since their loss. Since other information about cosmic phenomena, except for the area of ​​the car Borowski finds are absent, there is good reason to believe that the results Rubtsov meteorites fell May 14, 1934, ie, at the time of the explosion of the car. The imposing mass of the collected samples, but it is only part of the precipitated material, suggests a large cometary meteoroids, has a low strength, which is typical cometary fragments, completing its flight in the atmosphere of a strong explosion. [9] Thus, we can assume that the meteoroid Borovsky comet nucleus are fragments of eruptive comets with the inclusion of a giant fulgurites.

Instead of conclusion

P ALIGN = »JUSTIFY»> The first (1964), who are «placed» in tektites comet nucleus was the French geochemist A. Deauville. [10]. He suggested that they — the products of the eruption on a hypothetical planet of Olbers. After the destruction of the planet’s crust fragments, falling to the earth, and formed the stray field of tektites.

In 1967, the Kiev geochemist EV Sobotovich gave his comet hypothesis formulation delivery tektites: «… tektites — a material of a comet, shielded by ice and the frozen gases and therefore does not contain cosmogenic isotopes. The comet has passed through the atmosphere, leaving a trail of tektitic field «[11].

The greatest contribution to the development of the comet hypothesis in 1983 -1997 GG He introduced Novosibirsk Geological EP Izokh. In the study of stray fields tektites-indoshinitov in Vietnam, he discovered the so-called age paradox ages of tektites — Radiological age of tektites much older horizon of their occurrence in the fields of dispersion — as a result suggested that tektites were delivered to Earth by comets tektitonosnymi. The origin of comets, he connected with the hypothesis of the eruption of VK All Saints [12]. In addition, extensive research conducted Izokh tektites Zhamanshin crater (Kazakhstan), where he also found the paradox of the age of tektites, and speculated about the origin of the one-stage huge Australasian tektitic belt from falling eruptive comet [13].

The author has chosen a different solution to the problem of tektites. Also known types of meteorites fall to Earth objects that do not fit into the Procrustean bed of traditional Meteoritics. This is mainly glass, slag and pumice, and their composition was quite similar to that of terrestrial rocks. Despite the indisputable facts falling meteorites science does not recognize them, and called psevdometeoritami. For 30 years, he collected and studied such objects, and interestingly, some of them are not of scientific interest have been received from an employee of the Committee for meteorites — «bison domestic Meteoritics» — RL Hotinka, who believed that if meteorites are fragments of asteroids, then there must be fragments of comets. He also said that the proceeds of glass, slag and pumice are ~ 40% of the total amount is sent to the Committee on Meteorites samples. A series of samples and information about them was obtained from the head «Kosmopoisk» VA Chernobrov. A total of 15 studied falls and 5 findings, the results of works published about 50 scientific and popular scientific articles. The main conclusion — the studied objects are cometary meteorites, some of which turned out to be tektites and enclosing the comet must have eruptive nature of origin [4]. In addition, serious disagreements emerged in the interpretation of the genesis of tektites. If Deauville and Izokh believe that tektites are of magmatic origin, the author, as mentioned above, said tektites fulgurites comet. This conclusion is completely buries the hypothesis of impact origin of tektites, which implies that tektites were formed from molten terrestrial rocks formed during the impact of asteroids and comets. As the proponents of this hypothesis consider it the most reliable and most common, is unlikely to give up on it soon, mainly because of the proximity of the composition of tektites and terrestrial sedimentary rocks, and this in spite of the insurmountable obstacles related to the impossibility of expansion of compact swarms of tektites for huge distance from the place of impact.

It looks strange paradox — has spent hundreds of millions. Dollars to a staggering in its complexity cosmic expedition to Earth to deliver only 1 mg of cometary material (program STARDUST and HAYABUSA), at the same time, scientists are hard not to notice the cometary substance sporadically fall to the ground in large quantities. In his articles, he repeatedly appealed to the Russian scientists to conduct a verification of the results of his research, but there was no response. Sadly, end all that Russia has once again lose the priority, this time, in addressing the burning problems of the universe — the origin of tektites, comets, and the emergence of life on Earth [14], and those responsible for silencing works Deauville Sobotovich, Izokh and the author will condemn themselves to public censure. However, the time to correct this situation still is, there is great hope for Borowski cometary meteorite that fell near the research centers of the country and the authority of Tsiolkovsky, the name of which should attract the attention of our scientists to this unique cosmic event. It is hoped that this paper will launch the first in the history of science research observed the comet falling meteorite.

Thanks.

Rubtsov RN, for the detailed information on field research field scattering protvanitov and providing samples and pictures.

Roshchina IA, for conducting X-ray fluorescence analysis of samples protvanitov. Dmitriev EV Borovsky comet meteor // system «Earth»: XX years of the seminar «The system» Earth «.» — M .: LENAND, 2014. pp 364-372.

Literature

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Dmitriev EV Drop tektitic rain in the Nizhny Novgorod region in winter 1996/1997 gg // Near-Earth Astronomy XXI century. — M .: GEOS, 2001, pp 322-330.
Tsel’movich VA The microparticles of metals in the Nizhny Novgorod tektites falls and kanskitah as indicators of cosmic matter // Twelfth International Conference . Moscow, 3-5, Borok October 6, 2011 Proceedings of the conference. Moscow, 2011. S.293-296.
Dmitriev EV Cometary meteorites: the fall, finds classification streamerglasses // Monograph: System . 300 years since the birth of MV Lomonosov. 1711 — 2011, M .: Book House , 2010, p. 170-189.
Dmitriev EV The emergence of tektites in the world // Nature. 1998. N 4. S. 17-25.
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Dmitriev EV Cometary high-K pumice and their possible link to the Tunguska meteorite // 95 years Tunguska issue, 1908-2003. Abstracts Jubilee Conference. Under. Ed. SS Grigorian. Moscow, SAI, June 24-25, 2003 — M .: MGU, 2003, p. 33-35.
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